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Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
It’s not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder, 1 , to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components. 2 one and the others become distorted.
Travel on a London bus and you’ll 3 see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to 4 that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are 5 . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.
Why? Because the target is 6 . People complained that buses were late and infrequent. 7 , the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were 8 or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they 9 hit cyclists. If the target was changed to 10 , you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more 11 drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would be at the expense of time.
There is another 12 : people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you 13 that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a 14 is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now ballad as a two-hour flight.
The 15 of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well 16 others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a 17 . Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.
This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria 18 critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not only to 19 just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better 20 the objective.
1. [A] therefore [B] however [C] again [D] moreover
2. [A] Emphasize [B] Identify [C] Assess [D] Explain
3. [A] nearly [B] curiously [C] eagerly [D] quickly
4. [A] claim [B] prove [C] check [D] recall
5. [A] threatened [B] ignored [C] mocked [D] blamed
6. [A] punctuality [B] hospitality [C] competition [D] innovation
7. [A] Yes [B] So [C] Besides [D] Still
8. [A] hired [B] trained [C] rewarded [D] grouped
9. [A] only [B] rather [C] once [D] also
10. [A] comfort [B] revenue [C] efficiency [D] security
11. [A] friendly [B] quiet [C] cautious [D] diligent
12. [A] purpose [B] problem [C] prejudice [D] policy
13. [A] reported [B] revealed [C] admitted [D] noticed
14. [A] break [B] trip [C] departure [D] transfer
15. [A] moral [B] background [C] style [D] form
16. [A] interpret [B] criticize [C] sacrifice [D] tolerate
17. [A] task [B] secret [C] product [D] cost
18. [A] leading to [B] calling for [C] relating to [D] accounting for
19. [A] specify [B] predict [C] restore [D] create
20. [A] modify [B] review [C] present [D] achieve
【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知，本题考查逻辑关系。比较前后两句语义，即It’s not difficult to...(做……不难)和it is much harder to...(做……难得多)，由not difficult和much harder可知，前后两句语义相反，B项however(提示转折关系)符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。
【解析】逻辑关系题。句中one和the other提示对比关系，and前后语义相反。由and后的the others become distorted(其余的就被扭曲了)可知，A项Emphasize(强调)符合原文逻辑关系，即，强调一个，其余则被忽略扭曲。本题答案为A项。
【解析】语境题。代词this指代前一句的观点，即，设定目标会带来负面后果：只强调一点，其余则被忽略扭曲。本句是对该观点的举例论述。对比各项语义：A项nearly(几乎)，B项curiously(好奇地)，C项eagerly(渴望地)和D项quickly(快速地)。其中D项符合原文语义，即：坐上伦敦公交车，你很快就会看到这点是如何体现在司机身上的(Travel on a London bus and you’ll quickly see how this works with drivers)。本题答案为D项。
【解析】语境题。观察本段句式特点，可知，本段首句(Watch people get on and show their tickets)与下文为总分关系。作者随后以自问自答的形式，引出在公交车上乘车买票这一场景中几个群体的表现。由前文Do people get on without paying? Of course!(人们会逃票上车吗?当然!)对乘客表现的提问可知，本句要对检票员(inspectors)是否尽到检票责任提问。因此C项check(检查)符合原文语义。本题答案为C项。
【解析】逻辑关系题。本句为段首句，本段下文与段首句为总分关系，语义一致。借助下文中drivers were 8 or punished according to the time they took(司机跟根据所用的时长获得 8 或惩罚)，以及And drivers hit these targets(司机们达到这些目标)，可知，本句的target(目标)与时间有关。A项punctuality(准时)符合原文逻辑关系。
【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知，本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较前后两句语义，即People complained that buses were late and infrequent(人们抱怨公交车晚点且班次较少)和the number of buses and bus lanes were increased(公交车和公交车道的数量增加)，可知二者为因果关系，即，人们抱怨为因，增加公交车数量为果。B项So(所以)符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。
【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知，本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较上句drivers hit these
targets与本句they 9 hit cyclists，可发现，hit为原词复现，提示两句为平行结构，